stock here When the sunspots in the southern hemisphere exceed those in the northern hemisphere (of the sun) its time to rock and roll….Earthquakes and Volcanos https://www2.hao.ucar.edu/hao-science/science-feature/solar-cycle-variability-induced-title-angle-scatter-babcockl-leighton Read the caption under the first image. That will explain how the year 536 was the longest duration of south exceeding the north, the integration of the individual deltas. Note in C4 about year 503 there was a higher peak but it was quite isolated. We have long spoke of how fast moving space rocks cause earthquakes and therefore vulcanism even if they are not large. The speed matters most. ——————————————————————– Story below copied and not verified by me, but it is interesting. In 535/6 AD a piece of comet (possibly from Halley’s Comet) passed over Britain, impacting or exploding over the Norwegian Sea . It would have scorched the land, killed the people and other life in most of Britain except for the valleys in Wales and Scotland. About 450 to 500 years later after the wildlife had recovered, the sparsely populated area (now called England) was resettled (not invaded) by the Angles, Saxons and Jutes, from the area now called Demark and northern Germany. The Jutes are probably the origin of “Judaeans”, (now called Jews) of the plagiarised Bible stories. England (Angle land) got its name from the Angle settlers, originally a fishing people (anglers). ———————————————————————- https://www2.hao.ucar.edu/hao-science/science-feature/solar-cycle-variability-induced-title-angle-scatter-babcockl-leighton Saturday, April 15, 2017 We present results from a three-dimensional Babcock–Leighton dynamo model that is sustained by the explicit emergence and dispersal of bipolar magnetic regions (BMRs). On average, each BMR has a systematic tilt given by Joy’s law. Randomness and nonlinearity in the BMR emergence of our model produce variable magnetic cycle. Variability in sunspot number (SSN) in STABLE dynamo simulations of the solar cycle image Variability in sunspot number (SSN) in STABLE dynamo simulations of the solar cycle using the observed random scatter in sunspot pair tilt angle of 15 degrees. (a) 19 magnetic cycles are highlighted with red and blue representing the northern and southern hemispheres respectively. Red shaded areas indicate periods when the SSN in the north exceeds that in the south and blue shaded areas indicate the opposite. (b) Long-term SSN variability in the same simulation, exhibiting extended periods of low and high activity analogous to grand minima and maxima. Black and red indicate northern and southern hemispheres and the dotted line shows the observed SSN for the Sun, averaged over the last 13 cycles, for comparison. However, when we allow for a random scatter in the tilt angle to mimic the observed departures from Joy’s law, we find more variability in the magnetic cycles. We find that the observed standard deviation in Joy’s law of 15 degrees produces a variability comparable to observed solar cycle variability of ∼ 32%, as quantified by the sunspot number maxima between 1755–2008. We also find that tilt angle scatter can promote grand minima and grand maxima. The time spent in grand minima for a scatter of 15 degrees is somewhat less than that inferred for the Sun from cosmogenic isotopes (about 9% compared to 17%). However, when we double the tile angle scatter to 30 degrees, the simulation statistics are comparable to the Sun (∼18% of the time in grand minima and ∼ 10% in grand maxima). Though the Babcock–Leighton mechanism is the only source of poloidal field, we find that our simulations always maintain magnetic cycles even at large fluctuations in the tilt angle. Furthermore, we find that moderate scatter in the tilts can enhance the efficiency of the dynamo, giving rise to stronger mean fields. We also demonstrate that tilt quenching is a viable and efficient mechanism for dynamo saturation; a suppression of the tilt by only 1-2 degrees is sufficient to limit the dynamo growth. Thus, any potential observational signatures of tilt quenching in the Sun may be subtle. Submitted to Astrophysical Journal March 8, 2017.