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A Bit More on Atmospheric Radio-Isotopes

as you said most of the C-14 is created in the Stratosphere and Mesosphere, i assume that is mostly because the density in the thermosphere and beyond is just so much less, and not related as much to the relative energies availableChatGPT

Your assumption is correct. The primary reason for the production of cosmogenic isotopes like carbon-14 (C-14) in the stratosphere and mesosphere, as opposed to higher altitudes in the thermosphere and beyond, is indeed related to atmospheric density.

In the thermosphere and exosphere (which includes the upper part of the thermosphere), the atmospheric density is extremely low. The number of particles available for interactions with cosmic rays is sparse compared to the denser regions of the atmosphere like the stratosphere and mesosphere. As a result, the likelihood of cosmic rays colliding with atmospheric particles and initiating nuclear reactions decreases with altitude.

In the denser layers of the atmosphere, particularly in the stratosphere and mesosphere, there are more nitrogen and oxygen molecules for cosmic rays to interact with, leading to the production of cosmogenic isotopes like C-14 and beryllium-10 (Be-10). These isotopes then have a greater chance of being transported downward through atmospheric processes, including mixing, precipitation, and other mechanisms, eventually reaching the Earth’s surface.

So, while the availability of atmospheric particles for interactions is a crucial factor, it’s also worth noting that the geomagnetic field and other factors play roles in modulating the penetration of cosmic rays into the atmosphere, influencing the altitude at which these nuclear reactions are most prominent.

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Let’s review some of the SEP energies in the September 2017 Solar event which was massive.

User

location factors for cme from solar events are listed as S11W16 and S08W88 how does one relate those to the surface of the sunChatGPT

The coordinates S11W16 and S08W88 refer to specific locations on the solar surface, and they are typically given in a format known as the solar heliographic coordinates. These coordinates are used to specify the position of features on the Sun’s surface in a system tied to the Sun’s rotation.

Here’s how to interpret these coordinates:

  1. S11W16:
    • The “S” indicates a southern latitude (as opposed to “N” for northern latitude).
    • The number “11” represents the latitude, which means the region is located approximately 11 degrees south of the solar equator.
    • The “W” indicates a western longitude (as opposed to “E” for eastern longitude).
    • The number “16” represents the longitude, suggesting the region is around 16 degrees west of the central meridian on the solar surface.
  2. S08W88:
    • Similar to the first example, “S” indicates a southern latitude.
    • The number “08” represents the latitude, indicating approximately 8 degrees south of the solar equator.
    • The “W” indicates a western longitude.
    • The number “88” represents the longitude, suggesting the region is around 88 degrees west of the central meridian on the solar surface.

These coordinates provide a way to specify locations on the solar disk based on a coordinate system tied to the Sun’s rotation. The solar equator is designated as 0 degrees latitude, and the central meridian is 0 degrees longitude.

So, for example, if you imagine looking down on the Sun from above the solar system with the solar north pole at the top, S11W16 would be located about 11 degrees south of the solar equator and 16 degrees to the west of the central meridian.

These coordinates are often used in solar observations and studies to identify specific active regions, sunspots, or other features on the solar surface.

User

is the central meridian considered pointed right at earth and therefore moves as earth movesChatGPT

Yes, the concept of the central meridian on the Sun is indeed tied to the Earth’s perspective. The central meridian is an imaginary line on the solar surface that runs from the solar north pole to the solar south pole, and it is considered to be pointed directly at Earth.

As the Sun rotates on its axis, the central meridian moves across the solar disk. From the vantage point of Earth, it appears as if the central meridian is rotating, and the features on the solar surface, such as sunspots or active regions, can be observed at different longitudes.

The period of solar rotation is approximately 25 days at the solar equator and around 35 days at the solar poles. This rotation causes the central meridian to complete one full rotation approximately every 27 days when observed from Earth.

Scientists and astronomers use the central meridian as a reference point for solar observations. When specifying the position of solar features using solar heliographic coordinates (such as S11W16 or S08W88), the longitudes are measured from the central meridian. This system allows for a standardized way of describing features on the solar surface as they rotate across the Sun, giving a sense of the Sun’s rotation as observed from Earth.

User

and it is pointed directly at earth and not along a parker spiral with an assumed velocity

ChatGPT

Yes, you’re correct. The central meridian of the Sun is considered to be pointed directly at Earth, and it is not aligned with the Parker spiral. The Parker spiral describes the spiral shape of the solar wind’s magnetic field as it extends outward from the Sun due to the Sun’s rotation.

While the solar wind and the solar rotation are related, the central meridian provides a reference point for solar features as observed from Earth. It is defined by the rotation of the Sun on its axis, and the features on the solar disk are measured in relation to this central meridian. This reference frame simplifies the description of solar observations and helps correlate features observed from Earth with their solar heliographic coordinates.

The Parker spiral is more relevant when considering the solar wind and its interaction with the interplanetary medium, whereas the central meridian is a concept used for describing solar features as seen from Earth.

How to define “where” something is on the Sun is done in 2 main ways, the Stonyhurst (Longitude is fixed for observers on earth, and thus considered the simplest) or the Carrington (yes that guy) recognizing that the suns rotation axis is slightly cocked compared to our orbit around it.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_coordinate_systems

This is the Stonyhurst, in it a sunspot would appear on the northern hemisphere to Move up as it moves from left to right.

The tile above is exaggerated, P is just over 7 degrees, it shows here more like 30 degrees.

Here is an 1870 book on Heliographics, 150 years ago!

https://archive.org/details/heliographicposi00peterich/heliographicposi00peterich/page/vi/mode/2up

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Let’s Talk Radio-Isotopes and Miyake Events and Energies

stock here: One of the arguments people use to refute a certain Miyake event is that they don’t have corresponding Be-10 isotopes. Higher energy events may have a predominance of C-14 and much less Be-10. Its a world few have travelled into.

User

what is the relation between carbon-14 formation in the atmosphere and BE-10 and the suspected solar events related to such. Also could gamma ray bursts from other stars reach here with enough concentration to significantly change the C-14 and B-10 in the atmosphere

ChatGPT

The formation of carbon-14 (C-14) and beryllium-10 (Be-10) in the Earth’s atmosphere is primarily influenced by cosmic rays, which are high-energy particles originating from various sources, including the sun and other celestial bodies. Both C-14 and Be-10 are isotopes that are produced when cosmic rays interact with nitrogen and oxygen in the atmosphere.

The relationship between C-14 and Be-10 is that they are both cosmogenic isotopes, meaning their production is initiated by cosmic rays. However, the specific processes leading to the production of each isotope are different.

  1. Carbon-14 (C-14):
    • C-14 is formed when cosmic rays collide with nitrogen-14 (N-14) in the atmosphere, resulting in the transformation of nitrogen into C-14. This radioactive isotope is then incorporated into carbon dioxide and enters the carbon cycle through processes such as photosynthesis.
  2. Beryllium-10 (Be-10):
    • Be-10 is produced when cosmic rays interact with oxygen and nitrogen in the atmosphere. Nitrogen-14 and oxygen-16 are the main target nuclei for the production of Be-10. Once formed, Be-10 can be deposited on the Earth’s surface through precipitation.

Solar Events and Isotope Production:

  • Solar events, such as solar flares and variations in solar activity, can influence the flux of cosmic rays reaching Earth. Changes in solar activity can potentially affect the production rates of C-14 and Be-10.
  • For example, during periods of increased solar activity, the solar wind from the sun can have a shielding effect on cosmic rays, reducing their intensity reaching Earth. Conversely, during solar minimums, when solar activity is low, more cosmic rays can penetrate the atmosphere, potentially leading to higher production rates of cosmogenic isotopes.

Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) from Other Stars:

  • Gamma-ray bursts are intense bursts of gamma-ray radiation that can originate from distant galaxies. While GRBs release an immense amount of energy, the likelihood of them significantly affecting C-14 and Be-10 levels on Earth is low.
  • The Earth’s atmosphere provides substantial protection from cosmic rays and high-energy particles. Even though GRBs are powerful, the vast distances between stars and the Earth make it highly improbable for their impact to significantly alter the isotopic composition of the Earth’s atmosphere.

In summary, solar activity can influence the production rates of C-14 and Be-10 by modulating cosmic ray flux, but the impact of gamma-ray bursts from other stars on these isotopes is considered negligible due to the protective atmosphere and the vast distances involved.

User

how about a few discussions on how exactly the c-14 and Be-10 are created by the SEP from the sun, or is it highly magnetic plasmas, or it mostly due to a puffed up magnetic shield of earth mdulates GCRs downward and a quiet sun result in less puffed up earth shield and so the allowing more GCRs in which can then create the C-14 and BE-10ChatGPT

The creation of cosmogenic isotopes such as carbon-14 (C-14) and beryllium-10 (Be-10) is indeed influenced by solar activity and the interaction of galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) with the Earth’s atmosphere. Here are some discussions on how these isotopes are created:

  1. Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs):
    • GCRs are high-energy particles, mostly protons and some heavier ions, that originate from outside our solar system. These cosmic rays continuously bombard the Earth. When GCRs collide with atoms in the Earth’s atmosphere, they can induce nuclear reactions, leading to the production of cosmogenic isotopes.
  2. Solar Modulation:
    • Solar activity, particularly the solar wind and solar magnetic field strength, plays a crucial role in modulating the flux of GCRs reaching the Earth. During periods of high solar activity, the solar wind is stronger, and the sun’s magnetic field is more effective at deflecting cosmic rays away from the solar system. This can result in a reduction in the number of GCRs reaching the Earth.
    • Conversely, during solar minimums (periods of low solar activity), the solar wind weakens, and the sun’s magnetic shield is less effective. As a result, more cosmic rays can penetrate into the solar system and interact with the Earth’s atmosphere.
  3. Formation of C-14 and Be-10:
    • Carbon-14 (C-14): The primary process leading to C-14 formation involves the interaction of cosmic rays with nitrogen-14 (N-14) in the Earth’s atmosphere. A neutron from the cosmic ray collides with N-14, transforming it into C-14. This newly formed C-14 then participates in the carbon cycle, becoming part of atmospheric carbon dioxide and subsequently incorporated into living organisms through processes like photosynthesis.
    • Beryllium-10 (Be-10): Be-10 is produced through the interaction of cosmic rays with oxygen and nitrogen in the atmosphere. Nitrogen-14 and oxygen-16 are common target nuclei for the production of Be-10. Once formed, Be-10 can be deposited on the Earth’s surface through precipitation.
  4. Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) Events:
    • SEP events, associated with solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs), can significantly enhance the flux of energetic particles, including protons, reaching the Earth. These events can contribute to the production of cosmogenic isotopes, including C-14 and Be-10, by increasing the number of energetic particles interacting with the atmosphere.

In summary, the modulation of cosmic rays by solar activity, specifically the solar wind and the sun’s magnetic field, plays a crucial role in the creation of cosmogenic isotopes in the Earth’s atmosphere. Solar minimums allow more cosmic rays to penetrate, contributing to the production of isotopes like C-14 and Be-10. SEP events can also enhance the flux of energetic particles, further influencing isotope production.

User

what are the relative particle energies needed to create c-14 and BE-10 respectivelyChatGPT

The creation of carbon-14 (C-14) and beryllium-10 (Be-10) involves cosmic rays interacting with elements in the Earth’s atmosphere, leading to nuclear reactions. The energy threshold for these reactions varies, but generally, they are in the range of tens of MeV (mega-electronvolts) or higher.

  1. Carbon-14 (C-14) Formation:
    • The primary process for the formation of C-14 involves the interaction of cosmic rays with nitrogen-14 (N-14) in the Earth’s atmosphere. The reaction can be represented as follows: N-14+Cosmic Ray→C-14+ProtonN-14+Cosmic Ray→C-14+Proton
    • The energy threshold for this reaction is typically around 20 MeV or higher.
  2. Beryllium-10 (Be-10) Formation:
    • Be-10 is produced when cosmic rays interact with oxygen and nitrogen in the atmosphere. The reaction involving nitrogen-14 can be expressed as: N-14+Cosmic Ray→Be-10+ProtonN-14+Cosmic Ray→Be-10+Proton
    • The energy threshold for the production of Be-10 is generally around 10-20 MeV.

It’s important to note that these energy thresholds are approximate values, and the exact values can depend on the specific reaction pathways and the energies of the particles involved. Cosmic rays with energies in the MeV to GeV (giga-electronvolts) range are capable of inducing these nuclear reactions in the Earth’s atmosphere.

Additionally, solar energetic particle (SEP) events, which are associated with solar flares and coronal mass ejections, can contribute to the production of cosmogenic isotopes. The energies of particles in SEP events can range from tens of keV (kilo-electronvolts) to several GeV, and they can play a role in the enhancement of C-14 and Be-10 production during such events.

User

I would hypothesize that most of c-14 produced is very high up in the atmosphere and therefore could take quite some time to mix all the way down to tree level, and also that cloud formation and rain as well as sprites could influence the rate of “grounding” the C-14ChatGPT

Your hypothesis has some merit. Indeed, the production of cosmogenic isotopes like carbon-14 (C-14) occurs in the upper atmosphere, primarily in the stratosphere and mesosphere, where cosmic rays interact with nitrogen and oxygen. The process you’re describing, involving the downward mixing of C-14 to lower atmospheric levels and ultimately to the Earth’s surface, is influenced by atmospheric dynamics.

Several factors contribute to the transport and mixing of C-14 from the upper atmosphere to the Earth’s surface:

  1. Atmospheric Mixing: Atmospheric circulation, including vertical and horizontal movements of air masses, helps distribute gases and particles throughout the atmosphere. While the upper atmosphere is where most cosmogenic isotopes are produced, these isotopes can gradually mix downward through atmospheric circulation.
  2. Transport by Aerosols: Particles, including aerosols and fine particulate matter, can act as carriers for cosmogenic isotopes. These particles can facilitate the transport of C-14 from the upper atmosphere to lower levels.
  3. Rain and Precipitation: Rainfall can play a significant role in bringing down C-14 from higher altitudes to the Earth’s surface. As raindrops form, they can capture atmospheric constituents, including C-14, and deposit them on the ground.
  4. Cloud Formation: Clouds can influence the transport and deposition of atmospheric constituents, including C-14. Cloud droplets may contain C-14, and when the droplets collide and coalesce, they can fall to the surface as precipitation.
  5. Sprites and Lightning: Transient luminous events such as sprites, which occur in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere, are associated with thunderstorms. These events might contribute to the downward transport of C-14 by influencing atmospheric processes in the upper layers.

However, it’s crucial to note that the overall concentration of C-14 at the Earth’s surface is also influenced by factors such as the rate of carbon exchange between the atmosphere and the biosphere (e.g., through photosynthesis in plants) and other biogeochemical processes.

Your hypothesis aligns with the understanding that the mixing and transport of cosmogenic isotopes are complex processes influenced by atmospheric dynamics, precipitation, and other meteorological phenomena. The specifics of these processes can be further studied through atmospheric and environmental science research.

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Miyake Events — Super Flares and Maybe a Micro Nova

stock here: One of the best resources on Miyake Events was, amazingly, Reddit. So I shall reproduce what I found here: I present this as “interesting”, I see Reddit as mostly composed of Normies leaning left too. So they love to “confound the situation” and ignore other things that I deem obvious

Climate science, and more specifically dendochronology, tells us there have actually been six significant Miyake Events – a generic term used to describe intense bursts of radiation, thought to have been generated by solar storms, striking earth – over the past 9,300 years. The estimated dates are 5481/71, 5411/10 and 660 BCE, and 774/5 and 992/3 CE. The phenomenon was first identified by a Japanese physicist, Fusa Miyake, as recently as 2012, so it’s still pretty early in our attempts to understand it, and there is no scientific consensus as yet as to exactly how (let alone why) these events occur. However, there does appear to be agreement that by far the largest of these Events took place in 774/5 CE, and I presume that that’s the one that you’re asking about here.

From the historian’s point of view, the main problem that we face is that the cosmic rays that constitute a Miyake event are invisible and don’t affect human beings, animals, or crops, at least at the intensity levels they have when they hit earth. What they do do is wreak havoc with electromagnetic systems, which is why scientists have been warning that future Miyake Events have severe potential to massively disrupt civilizations built around computers, electronics, and satellite communications.

An Event of the intensity of the 774 burst would have the potential to shut down the internet, knock out most if not all of our satellites, and so directly impact on most of the systems we rely on to keep things moving and keep us informed today. It would probably even put paid to AskHistorians and its digital archives, at least in the immediate term.

None of these systems, obviously, existed in the 8th century, and in fact the earliest disruption attributable to solar storms dates only to 1859, when what is known as the “Carrington Event” (named after the astronomer who recorded the solar activity that caused it) broke telegraph lines and caused a small circuit fire in Pittsburgh,

despite having not much more than 1% of the intensity of the 774 Miyake storm. So while you might think that a phenomenon as remarkable as the 774 Event, which was the most intense solar storm to hit earth in recorded history, would be “hard to miss”, the reality is that it absolutely was missed by most, and perhaps all, of those alive at the time.

With all this said, it’s true that solar radiation of this sort can potentially cause auroral displays that might be visible to an observer on earth, and astrophysicists hunting for evidence of the 774 event have isolated two potential records that they think might relate to the Event. The first is an entry in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle for 774, which reads, in its entirety,

This year the Northumbrians banished their king, Alred, from York at Easter-tide; and chose Ethelred, the son of Mull, for their lord, who reigned four winters. This year also appeared in the heavens a red crucifix, after sunset; the Mercians and the men of Kent fought at Otford; and wonderful serpents were seen in the land of the South-Saxons.

The “red crucifix, after sunset”, it’s suggested, might be a record of an aurora caused by the 774 Miyake Event. There are definitely problems with the identification – to begin with, the ASC that we have today is not a chronicle written contemporaneously in the 8th century; it comes in a number of variations, and was probably set down in the reign of Alfred, more than a century later, combining elements from earlier chronicles. In addition (and as the record of “wonderful serpents” suggests), the ASC tended to record a fair number of wonders which might be considered portents or otherwise help the monks who compiled it interpret God’s wishes for the Saxon peoples,

and probably the monks who recorded the “red crucifix” did so because they thought it might be a message about either Alfred’s ejection from York or the battle between the men of Mercia and Kent. There are sufficient wonders knocking around within the annals of the ASC that there’s a moderately decent chance that if you go to it for evidence that something happened in any given year, you will find a record that might, perhaps, apply to your event.

For example, just taking the entries for the 8th century, there are nine years for which various wonders are recorded – so an almost 1 in 10 chance that any randomly-chosen date will be associated with some sort of celestial, aerial or weather phenomenon. And that’s for a relatively peaceful (and briefly-chronicled) century – the incidence of wonders increases dramatically after 793, when the vikings began the worst of their depredations, because there was greater need to seek some sort of guidance from God as to how behaviours and worship might best be modified. (See here for an earlier contribution of mine on how to read the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle‘s records of celestial portents.)

What this means is that it’s not necessarily the case that there was anything absolutely unique, or even especially memorable, about the “crucifix” of 774, and its interpretation as a message from God also potentially complicates the description that we have of the form that it assumed. So, while there’s no particular reason to assume the entry is an invention, an interpolation, nor even something mistakenly ascribed to the wrong year, the chain of evidence, and the contemporary significance ascribed to the “sign”, are at least potentially problematic for anyone considering associating the Northumbrian portent with the 774 Miyake Event.

Finally, a team of physicists led by Hayawaka has in any case used C14 dating to provisionally “reassign” the ASC record from 774 to the period 25 March 775-25 December 777. To be clear, they’re doing this based on scientific evidence rather than for any reason an historian would consider valid (their reasoning would go: “the tree rings were laid down in 775-7, so the Chronicle dating of the red crucifix event must be wrong”).

An historian would take issue with the idea of making such a reassignment without at least considering the alternative view that the ASC entry may be correctly dated, but refer to something other than the Miyake Event, and might also point out that there’s no compelling reason (other than the potential coincidence of dates) to assume that it records an aurora at all. In sum, for me, there has to be some doubt as to whether the Chronicle entry does, in fact, match up with the Event.

The second incident suggested as a possible account of phenomena associated with the 774 Event is more detailed, but more problematic, since it comes from two Chinese records dating to 12 January 776. This describes a white qi phenomenon (literally translating to “white vapour”) that was seen seen “above the moon”.

This observation is recorded in both the Jiu Tangshu (“Old Book of Han“, one of the two major dynastic histories of the Tang Dynasty) and the Xin Tangshu (“New Book of Han“, the other and later one). Again, it’s worth pointing old that neither the Old nor the New Books of Tang were written contemporaneously (they were compiled in c.945 and c.1060 respectively, but drawn, as was the ASC, from contemporary records).

Again (for this, see below), historians will have some problems with the suggestion that it is easily possible to take such a record and simply assign it to the Miyake Event without considering the religious and cultural contexts in which the observation was made.

Anyway: the complete transcription of the Tang records, with commentary drawn from a paper by Stephenson et al, is as follows:

Relevant historical information is recorded in the Jiu Tangshu (v. 36, p. 1328) and the Xin Tangshu (v. 32, p. 836), both of which are treatises on astronomy, while many auroral records in the Xin Tangshu are found in treatises on the five elements. In the Jiu Tangshu (“Old History of the Tang Dynasty”), the text is to be found in a general collection of astronomical records of various kinds of “portents (zaiyi)”. This older history was compiled between AD 940 and 945, soon after the end of the Tang Dynasty in AD 907. The Xin Tangshu (“New History of the Tang Dynasty”) was compiled more systematically between AD 1043 and 1060. The older history (Jiu Tangshu) often contains details that are omitted in the newer history (Xin Tangshu), for example, a few eclipses (e.g., Stephenson, 1997, p. 245). Whereas the astronomical treatise of the Jiu Tangshu tends to list events purely in chronological order, regardless of their type, the section of “portents (zaiyi)” in the astronomical treatise of the Xin Tangshu divides the entries into groups: for example, solar eclipses, solar omens, lunar omens, comets, etc. However, the scientific significance of these divisions is at least debatable.

A full presentation and translation of the record in the Jiu Tangshu (v. 36, p. 1328) is as follows:

Χ大曆十年…十二月丙子夜,東方月上有白氣十餘道,如匹帛,貫五車、東井、輿鬼、觜、參、畢、柳、軒轅,三更後方散。“Dali reign period, 10th year, 12th lunar month, day bingzi (12) [= AD 776 Jan 12]. At night, in the E direction above the Moon there were more than ten streaks (dao) of white vapour (baiqi). They were like unspun silk. They penetrated (guan) [the star groups] Wuche(in Auriga), Dongjing (in Gemini), Yugui (in Cancer), Zui and Shen (both in Orion), Bi (in Taurus), Liu (in Hydra), and Xuanyuan (in Leo). After the third watch (i.e., after about 1:30 a.m), they disappeared.”

A full presentation and translation of the record in the Xin Tangshu (v. 32, p. 836) is as follows:

Χ大曆十年…十二月丙子,月出東方,上有白氣十餘道,如匹練,貫五車及畢、觜觿、參、東井、輿鬼、柳、軒轅,中夜散去。“Dali reign period, 10th year, 12th lunar month, day bingzi (12) [= AD 776 Jan 12], the Moon appeared (= rose) in the eastern direction. Above it there were more than ten streaks (dao) of white vapour (baiqi). They were like unspun silk. They penetrated (guan) [the star groups] Wuche and Bi, Zuixi, Shen, Dongjing, Yugui, Liu, and Xuanyuan. After midnight they disappeared.”

Stephenson et al, in their review of the latter case, list several different reasons for doubting it applies to the 774 Miyake Event. First, scientists who had earlier sought to plunder Chinese records for astronomical data had not associated the “white vapour” seen in 776 with aurora; second, the “vapour” was seen in the east and south, not the north where an astronomer would expect it to have been seen it if was an aurora, and, third, the Chinese astronomers who recorded it described it as being seen “above the moon”, which may more convincingly suggest that what was witnessed was a lunar halo. I’d add that, once again, an early 776 date is not an exact match for the 774/5 Miyake Event, either, though of course it might match well with the revised dating proposed by the Hayawaka team. Finally, the manner in which the physicists involved in this project have assembled a grab-bag of what might well be very different observations of different events that took place on different dates (and were also differently interpreted by contemporaries) is surely indicated by the very different descriptions – red crucifix, white streaks – that appear in the Saxon and the Chinese records.

I’m pinging our Chinese-reading flair u/EnclavedMicrostate at this point, since it is possible that someone with a more complete understanding of how the Chinese of the Tang period understood and recorded celestial phenomena may be able to add crucial context to these records of a qi phenomenon. (Very loosely, qi may be defined as a sort of life force, and both traditional Chinese medicine and Chinese martial arts are quite heavily concerned with attempts to manipulate, balance, or disrupt it. For example, the infamous “Delayed Death Touch” sometimes associated with advanced martial arts is supposed to be a product of disruption of the victim’s qi.)

What all this tells us, I suspect, is that while primary historical sources may be useful to scientists seeking to understand historical physical events, it would be a good idea if the scientists who compose papers about the physics brought in appropriately specialist historians to consult on the records that they’re interested in, rather than attempting to interpret them for themselves. On the whole, and despite being based in university environments where such cross-disciplinary conversations ought not to be easily possible, they don’t do this. It’s a missed opportunity.

Sources

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle online, for the 8th century

R.C. Carrington, “Description of a singular appearance seen in the sun on September 1, 1859,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society vol.XX (11 Nov 1859)

Michael Goss, “The touch of death,” Fortean Times 31 (1980)

H. Hayakawa et al, “The celestial sign in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle and solar activity around the 770s,” Solar Physics 294 (2019)

F. Miyake et al, “A single-year cosmic ray event in 5410 BCE registered in 14C of tree rings,Geophysical Research Letters 48 (16 June 2021)

Nick Ogasa, “Catastrophic solar storms may not explain shadows of radiation in trees”, Science News, 7 Nov 2022

F. Richard Stephenson et al, “Do the Chinese astronomical records dated AD776 January 12/13 describe an auroral display or a lunar halo? A critical re-examination,” Solar Physics 294 (2019)

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Nextdoor — I Tried It, Spoke of Excess Deaths and Protested Drag Queens Exposing Themselves to Children in Libraries, and Was Banned

Here is their policy, which I was allowed to view after being banned.

When they don’t like your comment or post the “hide it”, I protested several “hidings” and never got a response. I just have to assume they are funded by the Soros types

Here is some contact information

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Support for equality

Racial equality

Racism has no place at Nextdoor. We stand in solidarity with neighbors advocating for racial justice and those speaking out against hate. These issues are relevant in neighborhoods everywhere — that’s why we allow conversations in support of Black Lives Matter, Stop Asian Hate, and other movements that advocate for racial equality and civil rights anywhere on Nextdoor as long as they adhere to our community guidelines

Content posted in opposition or as a rebuttal to support for racial equality is counterproductive and harmful. We ask that neighbors be mindful of engaging constructively in discussions on these issues. While neighbors are free to disagree in civil ways about the policies or tactics advocated by equality movement organizers and supporters, posts and comments intended to undermine their core messages of equality are prohibited. For these reasons:

  • Content promoting “All Lives Matter” is prohibited when it’s used to diminish racial equality, the Black Lives Matter movement, or Stop Asian Hate.
  • Content promoting “Blue Lives Matter” is prohibited when it’s used to diminish racial equality or the Black Lives Matter movement, but permitted when used to honor, celebrate, or thank the police for work done in a community.
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To learn best practices for discussing issues related to race and discrimination on the Nextdoor app or website, please review the following resources:

LGBTQIA+ equality

LGBTQIA+ stands as an acronym for the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer and/or Questioning, Intersex, and Asexual community. Homophobia, biphobia, transphobia, and any other mistreatment, aggression or unkindness shown to people on the basis of their gender and/or sexual orientation is expressly prohibited on Nextdoor.  LGBTQIA+ issues have a place in neighborhoods everywhere — that’s why we allow content discussing or celebrating LGBTQIA+ matters anywhere on Nextdoor as long as it adheres to our community guidelines.  


Our commitment to our neighbors 

Our Community Guidelines were established to ensure all people feel welcome on Nextdoor. We leverage a combination of technology and the human judgment of our neighbors and the Nextdoor Neighborhood Operations team to report and remove content, behavior, and individuals that discriminate or generally make others feel unwelcome. 

However, we may not always get this right. Sometimes, this process may fail to remove content that violates our Community Guidelines or it may erroneously remove content that belongs on Nextdoor. If you see either of these situations happening, please report this to us. We are committed to doing what is right and continuously learning, iterating, and improving along the way. 

https://help.nextdoor.com/s/article/community-guidelines?language=en_US

Community Guidelines

We’re glad you’re here. 

We want everyone to feel welcome on Nextdoor, and we have created these Guidelines to define the values of the community we want to build. On Nextdoor, you’re connected not by a shared preference, but a shared connection to a place — your neighborhood. Let’s build a strong one together.


1. Be respectful to your neighbors

You’re speaking to your real neighbors. Strong communities are built on strong relationships.


2. Do not discriminate

We do not tolerate racism, hateful language, or discrimination of any kind.


3. Discuss important topics in the right place

We have policies and dedicated spaces for important non-local topics, such as national politics.
 

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We prohibit any activity that could hurt someone, from physical harm to scams.
 

You, our neighbors who make up Nextdoor, play a key role in neighborhood moderation by reporting content or neighbors that violate these Guidelines. Please remember that disagreeing with a post is not a reason to report it. This slows down our ability to remove content that is truly abusive and to create a platform where everyone feels welcome.



 

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Worldwide Excess Deaths, Since the mRNA Injection Roll-Out = 16,484,000

I thought the number would be higher, I guess we can take this estimate as the bare minimum. The spreadsheet is here:

https://app.box.com/s/7g724ydf3sx9v17ij3psjx1gyvvjj8o8

https://app.box.com/s/7g724ydf3sx9v17ij3psjx1gyvvjj8o8

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We Knew Coffee Was Good, We Didn’t Know Just How Good!

H/T Lot’s Wife

This recently published paper shows that consistent coffee drinkers enjoy reduced risk of infection. Coffee’s polyphenols and antioxidants appear to up-regulate the immune system. Caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee showed similar results. Extensive details here:

https://www.news-medical.net/news/20231116/Coffee-and-COVID-Study-finds-coffee-inhibits-SARS-CoV-2-offers-new-dietary-defense-strategy.aspx 

Of course, water quality is crucial. If you share the assertion that coffee is best brewed with clean water, Fox water is preferred. Arguably a source of some of the cleanest water in the region.

Listed contaminates in Fairbanks city water:

https://www.myutility.us/akwater/water-safety/water-quality-reports

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VAERS Reporting Is Now a Known Quanitity, With Their Fillable PDF

One of the main problems of VAERS was not knowing what information was needed, and not knowing how long it might take, or start but lose everything because of a computer or internet glitch.

https://vaers.hhs.gov/uploadFile/index.jsp

So use the above link, for a fillable PDF, you can also download into your computer and work on it when you have time.

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Artesunate — Extract of Sweet Wormwood, Do You Have It In Your Medicinal Garden?

The technical name is Artemisia annua, it’s an annual and you can direct plant, which is always the easiest way. Do your research though, it can have some serious side effects?

Bought at Amazon $5.

Potential Harms likely mean that prophylactic use is not justified. So it’s use a a pre-cancer treatment is not likely.

https://www.drugs.com/npp/sweet-wormwood.html

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Excess Deaths

oldster submitted as a comment, there is a lot here.

Another aspect ‘going forwards’ is the attack from ‘other directions’ that may utilize knowledge gleaned from the great variety of experimental material injected as parts of the COVID Atrocity .
Examples, via ‘Chemtrails; dental anesthesia, EMFs

Two notable sentences from below material posted by Dr. William Makis:

“What we are seeing in graphs of CDC data, is the rising, long term destruction of COVID-19 Vaccinated young people, worst at ages 0-24.” and

“The disturbing part of this is that excess deaths have doubled in 2023 compared to 2022 and made new highs at the end of 2023.”

https://makismd.substack.com/p/video-new-zealand-covid-19-vaccine

William Makis MD
@MakisMD
NEW ARTICLE: CPAC/ICS-5 Conference & US Senator Ron Johnson Hearing – Dr.William Makis and Dr.Ryan Cole present on COVID-19 Vaccine Injuries, Turbo Cancer and Excess Deaths (Feb.23, 2024)

This is the VIDEO of presentations given by myself and Dr.Ryan Cole
@drcole12
at the recent International Crisis Summit 5 Conference, and my analysis.

What I really wanted to stress in my ICS-5 presentation is the fact that the “Died Suddenly” phenomenon after COVID-19 Vaccination is very real, it’s affecting mostly young people and it has been growing steadily since 2021, when the vaccines first became available to the public.

What we are seeing in graphs of CDC data, is the rising, long term destruction of COVID-19 Vaccinated young people, worst at ages 0-24.

It is safe to say that in 2023, we are seeing the long term effects of COVID-19 Vaccines taken in 2021 and Vaccine Mandates enforced on young people, and University and College students in late 2021, early 2022.

The disturbing part of this is that excess deaths have doubled in 2023 compared to 2022 and made new highs at the end of 2023.

Dr.Cole begins his presentation by showing pathology slides with staining for the spike protein which lights up in the brain, peripheral nerves, liver, adrenal glands, placenta, testes, etc.

This is the kind of testing that should be done at autopsy of every sudden or unexpected death of a COVID-19 Vaccinated person, but is not being done in the United States or Canada or Australia or the UK, and hasn’t been done since the vaccines rolled out in Dec.2020.

Dr.Cole also explains the concept of the IgG4 antibody shift (a tolerance antibody) caused by taking multiple COVID-19 Vaccines and the damage done to cancer surveillance.

I agree with Dr.Cole in calling for an immediate STOP to all synthetic mRNA/LNP injections, immediately.

The entire mRNA/LNP “vaccine” platform is far too dangerous and too toxic to be permitted to remain on the market.

The mRNA/LNP technology must be halted, along with the 500+ new mRNA vaccines that are in various Phase I, II or III clinical trials (this includes mRNA vaccines intended for living organisms other than humans).

Special thanks to
@EthicalSkeptic

@DowdEdward

@JohnBeaudoinSr
for their fantastic work on excess deaths and excess cancer deaths.

Article Link in photo to avoid shadowban, just re-type the URL in the 1st photo at the top, into your browser to access

@HighWireTalk

@ClaytonMorris

@VigilantFox

@TheChiefNerd

@LauraLynnTT

@BLNewsMedia

@thevivafrei

@TuckerCarlson

@joerogan

@delbigtree

#DiedSuddenly

On a more positive note, Artesunate from sweet wormwood may be big help.

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Excess Deaths After All The Various Formulations of the mRNA Experiement, 35,000,000

I took the data from World in Data, crunched it into a pivot sheet in Excel.

Aloha! Folks, I realized that while the numbers seemed credible, my pivot table function was misleading me. These numbers are in excess deaths per million, and they are usually in the 1000 to 8000 range, I was adding those up, instead of just multiplying every countries number of millions, which I will do after a few priorities. My guess is that the number is even higher. USA excess is 3749 per million time 380 million 1,424,000 excess deaths, Year 2008 thru 2014 saw an average number of deaths per year in USA around 2,500,000

—————————————————-

https://ourworldindata.org/grapher/cumulative-excess-deaths-per-million-covid?tab=chart&country=AUS~CAN~USA~JPN~GBR~DEU~ITA~NZL~KOR

Many countries stopped reporting in 2022, and some stopped reporting in 2023. So one by one, I applied a multiplier to their 2021 Injection year data, and got a new total. Then because China and India were not represented, I increased the total by their combined world percent which is 35%.

35,000,000 excess deaths. Decrease in fertility is also in play and we have done prior studies on that, you can search the website.

Here is the file in Excel, no password

https://app.box.com/s/99g85p0eb0e2h394ie5owlfytkdby9qw

Here is a graphical summary of which countries stopped reporting and when

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U.S. Health Agencies and the COVID Cartel: What Are They Hiding?

Mahalo to Lot’s Wife

Will the trappings and formality of a US Senate fact-gathering session about the lies and harms related to the plandemic and ‘vaccine’ administration open the doors of perception? The lineup of experts is more than adequate to set the record straight. If you’re among those who deny there is a problem, fast forward to the presentation by Dr. Mattias Desmet, PhD. His specialty is detecting mass hypnosis with a side dish of Stockholm syndrome.

It turns out that personal attitudes can be hijacked by media and search results. Using covert prompts and nudges, much like microwave arrays and the path of hurricanes, social engineers secure an artificial consensus.

The curious will attend closely. If you detect falsity or deception, please share with me.

https://rumble.com/v4fpw4c-federal-health-agencies-and-the-covid-cartel-what-are-they-hiding.html

U.S. Sen. Ron Johnson (WI-R) leads a roundtable discussion titled,“Federal Health Agencies and the COVID Cartel: What Are They Hiding?” where a panel of experts [provide facts about COVID the MSM ignores].

The speakers will expose how the COVID Cartel – federal health agencies, Big Pharma, legacy media, and Big Tech – engage in censorship and coverups. This (4hr. 30 min.) discussion will also shine a light on the failures and corruption of the global elite and their institutions.

SPEAKERS:

Senator Ron Johnson

Dr. Robert Malone, MD
Dr. Jessica Rose, PhD
Mr. Ed Dowd
Mr. Kevin McKernan
Dr. David Gortler, PharmD
Dr. Harvey Risch, MD, PhD
Ms. Barbara Loe Fisher
Dr. Brian Hooker, PhD
Mr. Del Bigtree
Dr. Sabine Hazan, MD
Dr. Pierre Kory, MD
Dr. Christian Perronne, MD, PhD
Dr. Raphael Lataster, PhD
Ms. Lara Logan
Mr. Jason Christoff
Mr. Rodney Palmer
Dr. Mattias Desmet, PhD
Dr. Bret Weinstein, PhD
Mr. Randy Hillier
Dr. Sorin Titus Muncaciu
Mr. Rob Roos
Mr. Phillip Kruse

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World in Data, Excess Deaths Accelerating, In Those Countries That Continue to Report the Data

https://ourworldindata.org/grapher/cumulative-excess-deaths-per-million-covid?tab=chart&country=AUS~CAN~USA~JPN~GBR~DEU~ITA~NZL~KOR

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As The mRNA Injection Deaths Continue en masse, Gov Agencies Try to Hide the Deaths

Dr. John Campbell is on the Viligant Fox

https://vigilantfox.substack.com/p/uk-government-reveals-its-plan-to?r=1rfqgx

changes 2023’s numbers:

Week 21

Old method: 1066 excess deaths

New method: 662 excess deaths

Reduction of 404 excess deaths

Week 24

Old method: 1172 excess deaths

New method: 645 excess deaths

Reduction of 527 excess deaths

Week 32

Old method: 427 MORE than usual dying

New method: 89 LESS than usual dying

Reduction of 516 excess deaths

Week 34

Old method: 484 excess deaths

New method: 144 excess deaths

Reduction of 340 excess deaths

Week 46

Old method: 378 excess deaths

New method: 525 FEWER deaths than expected

Reduction of 903 excess deaths

Week 51

Old method: 647 excess deaths

New method: 260 FEWER deaths than expected

Reduction of 907 excess deaths

“So we’ve gone from a situation here where in that week where there were 647 excess deaths, more than we would expect to actually 260 less than we would expect,” Dr. Campbell observed with skepticism. “So there’s actually less people dying than we would expect.”

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Is This Rocket Exhaust Pattern Why Musk Renamed Twitter as “X”

stock here: this is from a 2023 Musk Rocket Launch

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UCLA Totally Discriminates In Their Applicant Selection, 29% of 2023 Entering Class is LGBTQIA+

This is obviously against their “non-discrimination” statement. Below

Nondiscrimination

You’re now viewing the 2023-24 Catalog

The University of California, in accordance with applicable federal and state laws and University policies, does not discriminate on the basis of race, color, national origin, religion, sex, gender identity, pregnancy (including pregnancy, childbirth, and medical conditions related to pregnancy and childbirth), physical or mental disability, medical condition (cancer-related or genetic characteristics), ancestry, marital status, age, sexual orientation, citizenship, or service in the uniformed services (including membership, application for membership, performance of service, application for service, or obligation for service in the uniformed services). The University also prohibits sexual harassment and harassment on any of the above bases. This nondiscrimination policy covers admission, access, and treatment in University programs and activities.

Students may grieve any action that they believe discriminates against them on the ground of race, color, national or ethnic origin, alienage, sex, religion, age, sexual orientation, gender identity, marital status, veteran status, or perceived membership in any of these categories which results in injuries to the student by contacting the Office of the Dean of Students by e-mail, or in person at 1104 Murphy Hall. Refer to UCLA Procedure 230.1 Student Grievances Regarding Violations of Anti-Discrimination Laws or University Policies on Discrimination, also available in 1104 Murphy Hall, for more information and procedures.

Inquiries regarding the University student-related nondiscrimination policies may be directed to the Office of the Dean of Students by e-mail, in person at 1104 Murphy Hall, or by phone at 310-825-3871. A staff member is available at this office to support students who need information or assistance in filing a discrimination complaint.

In accordance with applicable federal and state laws and University policy, including Title II of the Americans with Disabilities Act, Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, and University of California policy PACAOS-20 (Policy on Nondiscrimination), UCLA does not discriminate on the basis of physical or mental disability. Retaliation for participation in University procedures relating to complaints of discrimination is also prohibited. This nondiscrimination policy covers admission, access, and treatment in University programs and activities. UCLA is committed to prohibiting disability-based discrimination and harassment, and retaliation, performing a prompt and equitable investigation of complaints alleging discrimination, and properly remedying discrimination when it occurs. Examples of discrimination against students with disabilities include, but are not limited to: failure to engage with the student in a discussion of reasoning accommodations; failure to implement approved reasonable accommodations such as the provision of notes or extra time on tests; and exclusion of a qualified student from any course, course of study, or other educational program or activity because of the student’s disability. Disability-based harassment is conduct which is sufficiently severe, pervasive, or persistent so as to interfere with or limit an individual’s ability to participate in or benefit from the services, activities, or opportunities offered by the University.

UCLA has issued Procedure 230.2 Student Grievances Regarding Violations of Anti-Discrimination Laws or University Policies on Discrimination on Basis of Disability. Students may grieve any action that they believe discriminates against them on the basis of disability by contacting the Office of the Dean of Students by e-mail, or in person at 1104 Murphy Hall. Refer to this procedure for more information.

Title IX prohibits sex discrimination, including sexual harassment and sexual violence, in any education program or activity receiving federal financial assistance. Inquiries regarding the application of Title IX may be directed to the Title IX Office, 2255 Murphy Hall, 310-206-3417, or the U.S. Department of Education Office for Civil Rights.

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UCLA Law, Noted The Only White Guy Is Out of Focus, Small, and Ghost Like, Tight Lipped, Looks Like Structural Racism to Me

Also, check this page

https://law.ucla.edu/admissions

This is kind of Tongue and Check meant to be humor, but have a look

Sauce, here it is.

From my article, I grabbed the Evidence before the tone deaf Schwab and gang realized it wasn’t playing well. Drop a comment on the post below.

Another example from UCLA, note the 1 token white guy, small, out of focus, and frankly ghost like.

This is what they are focusing on…..

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Colleges That Still Mandate mRNA Jabs for Young Students, How Far Have We Fallen

College acceptances will be due soon. These 67 colleges still mandate C19 shots that healthy young adults do not need. No other part of the world is still requiring college students to take these shots. Choose wisely.

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Was The Cell Phone Outage, to Include Starlink, the Testing of a Low Level EMP Weapon?

stock here: I have not heard it discussed so I’ll take it as my Epiphany. Look at it this way. Why would miltaries NOT work hard to develop a limited EMP that doesn’t fry everything, but allows an invasion to happen before the situation can even be understood.

Consider the number of people that use their phones as their GPS…that would cause chaos.

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Russia Went There, Dmitry Medvedev – who served as president from 2008 to 2012, We Will Nuke Kyiv, Berlin, London, Washington

stock here — I knew that Putin wouldn’t be the one to say this….

https://archive.ph/4tZJh#selection-1303.0-1355.242

The Kremlin today threatened to fire nuclear missiles on London, Washington, Berlin and Kyiv if Russia is forced to give up the Ukrainian territory it has invaded.

Dmitry Medvedev – a close Putin ally who served as president from 2008 to 2012 – said if a military defeat led to a return to the 1991 frontiers, when the Soviet Union collapsed, Moscow would unleash Armageddon.

‘Attempts to return Russia to the borders of 1991 will lead to only one thing,’ he said. ‘Towards a global war with Western countries using the entire strategic arsenal of our state. In Kyiv, Berlin, London, Washington.’

Hypersonic nuclear missiles would also strike ‘all other beautiful historical places that have long been included in the flight targets of our nuclear triad’.

He added: ‘Will we have the courage to do this if the disappearance of a thousand-year-old country, our great Motherland, is at stake, and the sacrifices made by the people of Russia over the centuries will be in vain? The answer is obvious.’

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Attacks on John Campbell Are Not Done With Adequate History, I Watched in Real Time

stock, I disagree with the conclusion of Alistar Williams that John Campbell is a Bad Actor. He was certainly a true believer, but I watched as bit by bit, he saw the evolving evidence, and completely changed his opinions and became an activist against the vax.

This is important. Because it points out a very important fact….very few people can change their minds.